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Journal Publications

Inverted nipple repair revisited: a 7-year experience.

Published in Aesthetic Surgery Journal, January 2015.

BACKGROUND: Nipple inversion in females can be congenital or acquired. Women who desire treatment for this condition often report difficulty with breastfeeding and interference with their sexuality. However, data are limited on the demographics of patients who undergo surgery to repair inverted nipples and the associated recurrence rates and complications.
OBJECTIVES: The authors assessed outcomes of a 7-year experience with an integrated approach to the correction of nipple inversion that minimizes ductal disruption.
METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed for 103 consecutive patients who underwent correction of nipple inversion. (The correction technique was initially reported in 2004 and entailed an integrated approach.) Complication rates, breastfeeding status, and patient demographics were documented.
RESULTS: Among the 103 patients, 191 nipple corrections were performed. Nine patients had undergone previous nipple-correction surgery. Recurrence was experienced by 12.6% of patients, 3 of whom had bilateral recurrence. Other complications were partial nipple necrosis (1.05%), breast cellulitis (1.57%), and delayed healing (0.5%). The overall complication rate was 15.74%. Fifty-seven percent of the patients had a B-cup breast size, and 59% were 21 to 30 years of age.
CONCLUSIONS: Results of the authors’ 7-year experience demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of their technique to correct inverted nipples. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 4: Therapeutic.

Gould DJ, Nadeau MH, Macias LH, Stevens WG.

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Superior pedicle technique of reduction mammaplasty: a stepwise approach.

Published in Aesthetic Surgery Journal, January 2015.

Numerous surgical options for breast reduction have been described, but in the current healthcare environment, efficiency is of the utmost importance. In this Featured Operative Technique, the authors describe an efficient, reproducible, and simple method for minimal to moderate reduction mammaplasty that utilizes a superior pedicle. The surgical maneuvers were developed and conveyed to the senior author (W.G.S.) by Dr John Bostwick. This approach preserves superior and medial breast fullness while providing appropriate resection of the breast parenchyma to ameliorate symptoms and produce a smaller, lifted breast with a more youthful appearance. The surgical technique maintains a reliable blood supply to the nipple-areola complex (NAC) from the internal mammary artery and its perforators, and involves minimal transposition of the NAC. The authors reviewed the charts of 62 consecutive patients who underwent this procedure and found the complication rate to be 11.3%. Complications included 1 hematoma, 1 standing cone deformity, 3 soft-tissue infections, 8 incisional breakdowns, and 1 unilateral necrosis of the NAC.

Nadeau MH, Gould DJ, Macias LH, Spring MA, Stevens WG.

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Secondary augmentation-mastopexy: indications, preferred practices, and the treatment of complications.

Published in Aesthetic Surgery Journal, September 2014.

Increasing the volume of the breast while simultaneously decreasing the skin envelope equates to surgery involving opposing forces. Increasing patient demand and the evolving perceptions of surgeons have led to the growing popularity of the combined augmentation-mastopexy operation. In turn, secondary augmentation-mastopexies and revisional surgeries of primary augmentation-mastopexies also have increased in popularity. In this article, the authors describe indications for secondary augmentation-mastopexy, techniques for performing this combined procedure safely and effectively, adjunctive procedures, potential pitfalls, and the treatment of complications.

Spring MA, Macias LH, Nadeau M, Stevens WG.

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One-Stage Augmentation Mastopexy A Review of 1192 Simultaneous Breast Augmentation and Mastopexy Procedures in 615 Consecutive Patients

Published in Aesthetic Surgery Journal, May 2014.

BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing popularity of the combined augmentation mastopexy procedure among patients, the safety and efficacy of this surgery have been questioned by many surgeons.

OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated the safety and efficacy of the combined augmentation mastopexy procedure.

METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 615 consecutive patients who underwent combined augmentation mastopexy procedures at a single outpatient surgery center from 1992 through 2011. Patient demographics, operative and implant details, and long-term outcomes were analyzed. Rates of complications and revisions were calculated.

RESULTS: The most common complications were poor scarring (5.7%), wound-healing problems (2.9%), and deflation of saline implants (2.4%). Of the 615 patients evaluated, 104 (16.9%) elected to undergo revision surgery: 54 revision procedures were secondary to implant-related complications, and 50 were secondary to tissue-related complications. Our data compare favorably with previously reported revision rates for breast augmentation alone and mastopexy alone.

CONCLUSIONS: With a skilled surgeon and proper patient selection, the combined augmentation mastopexy procedure can be safe and effective.

W. Grant Stevens, MD, FACS, Luis H. Macias, MD, Michelle Spring, MD, David A. Stoker, MD, FACS, Carlos O. Chacón, MD, MBA, Seth Eberlin, MD

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Counterfeit Medical Devices: The Money You Save Up Front Will Cost You Big in the End

Published in Aesthetic Surgery Journal, April 2014.

Savvy Internet and e-mail marketers often tempt physicians with “best price” promotional offers to purchase medical devices that are “just like hot-selling models” of name-brand devices. Featured technologies run the gamut and include cold lipolysis, laser lipolysis, fractional radiofrequency microneedles, fractional C02 laser, intense pulsed light hair removal, cavitation, and microdermabrasion. Such devices are being sold at a fraction of the list price of the name-brand products, have no consumables, and can be purchase with the click of a mouse. If it sounds like there must be a catch, there is.

W. Grant Stevens, MD, FACS; Michelle A. Spring, MD, FACS; and Luis H. Macias, MD

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Etiology of breast masses after autologous breast reconstruction.

Published in Annals of Surgical Oncology, February 2013

BACKGROUND: Determining the nature of a breast mass after autologous reconstruction can be difficult.

METHODS: A retrospective review of all autologous breast reconstructions was performed over 10 years. All postoperative breast masses were identified. Tumor characteristics, adjuvant treatment, timing of the development of the mass, and correlation with radiology were reviewed.

RESULTS: A total of 365 flaps were performed on 272 patients [253 deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP), 35 superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA), 22 muscle-sparing free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (free MS-TRAM), 25 latissimus, and 30 pedicled TRAM]. Breast masses were identified in 66 breasts (18 %). The majority of these were from fat necrosis, occurring in 54 breasts (15 % overall; DIEP 13.4 %, SIEA 5.7 %, free MS-TRAM 15 %, latissimus 0 %, pedicled TRAM 47 %), first identified at a mean of 3 months. Recurrent carcinoma was diagnosed in 13 breasts (3.6 %). Factors associated with the postreconstruction mass representing recurrent carcinoma were later time period after reconstruction (mean 24 months), closer surgical margins, and lymphovascular invasion.

Radiographic imaging accurately diagnosed recurrent carcinoma in 11 (92 %) of 12 patients in whom it was utilized and suggested a benign diagnosis in all 16 patients with fat necrosis in whom it was utilized.

CONCLUSIONS: Breast masses frequently present after autologous reconstruction. Fat necrosis is the most common cause. Recurrent carcinoma can occur in the reconstructed breast and presents later. A higher index of suspicion for recurrence should accompany any mass in which prior lymphovascular invasion was present or if original margins were <1 cm. Radiographic imaging accurately identifies the cause of these masses.

Casey W.J. 3rd, Rebecca A.M., Silverman A., Macias L.H., Kreymerman P.A., Pockaj B.A., Gray R.J., Chang Y.H., Smith A.A.

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Computed tomographic angiography: assessing outcomes.

Published in Clinics in Plastic Surgery, April 2011

Perforator flaps are preferable for breast reconstruction after mastectomy in many patients. Preoperative imaging of the perforators and source vessels is desirable to reduce surgeon stress, limit donor and recipient site complications, and minimize operative time and associated costs. Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) has been shown to provide highly accurate representations of vascular anatomy with excellent spatial resolution. A critical review of the currently available literature was performed to identify the benefits of preoperative imaging (specifically CTA) in perforator flap reconstruction.

Casey W.J. 3rd, Rebecca A.M., Kreymerman P.A., Macias L.H.

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Treatment of bowler’s neuroma with digital nerve translocation.

Published in Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery, September 2009

Bowler’s thumb presents as paresthesias or a neuroma involving the ulnar digital nerve of the thumb. Over 95 million people enjoy bowling worldwide with nearly 3 million certified league bowlers in the United States. While the incidence of Bowler’s thumb is unknown, it is an unrelenting nuisance for bowlers, and symptoms can be severe enough to prevent further sport participation. The condition can be managed nonoperatively with rest and splinting, but successful nonoperative treatment frequently requires discontinuation of bowling. The pressure on athletes to resume sports participation sooner and the possibility of nonoperative treatment failure mandate the need for development of a dependable surgical procedure for this condition. We present a case report of a successful surgical treatment by transposing the ulnar digital nerve dorsal to the adductor pollicis. The patient returned to manual labor and resumed bowling and is symptom free 3 years postsurgery.

Swanson S., Macias L.H., Smith A.A.

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The utility of diagnostic laparoscopy in the evaluation of anterior abdominal stab wounds

Published in American Journal of Surgery, December 2008

BACKGROUND: To assess if diagnostic laparoscopy (DL) is superior to nonoperative modes (serial abdominal examination with/without computed axial tomography [CAT] and diagnostic peritoneal lavage) in determining the need for therapeutic laparotomy (TL) after anterior abdominal stab wound (ASW).

METHODS: Retrospective review of ASW patients. Patients were divided into group A (DL/exploratory laparotomy) to identify peritoneal violation (PV) and group B (initial nonoperative modes).

RESULTS: Seventy-three patients met inclusion criteria. In group A (n = 38), 29 patients (76%) had PV by DL and underwent exploratory laparotomy. Only 10 (35%) underwent TL (sensitivity for PV = 100%; specificity and positive predictive value of PV in determining need for TL = 29% and 33%, respectively). In group B (n = 35), 7 patients (20%) underwent TL, yielding an improved specificity (96%) and positive predictive value (88%).

CONCLUSIONS: We find no role for DL in the evaluation of ASW patients solely to determine PV.

Kopelman T.R., O’Neill P.J., Macias L.H., Cox J.C., Matthews M.R., Drachman D.A.

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Patient comprehension and recall of laparoscopic surgery and outcomes in a non-English speaking population.

Published in Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons, April -June 2007

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine patient recall and comprehension after laparoscopic appendectomy in an underserved population. Laparoscopic surgery can lead to diagnostic uncertainty secondary to poor recall and variable port placement.

METHODS: After institutional review board approval, we identified a cohort of patients who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy from 2000 to 2004 at a single institution. We then attempted to contact the patients to conduct a 10-question telephone survey, which determined whether the patient spoke English or Spanish as a primary language, ethnicity, educational level, and questions about recall of perioperative events and diagnoses. If we could not reach the patient, we tried to call back on 2 different occasions.

RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2004, 186 patients underwent laparoscopic appendectomy. Of these, 65% were Hispanic. We found that only 17% of these patients returned for a postoperative visit. Only 19.3% could be contacted by phone. Forty-seven percent of the patients contacted by phone spoke Spanish exclusively. Overall 92% of patients contacted knew what operation they had, and gave their correct diagnosis.

CONCLUSIONS: The low percentage of patients available to follow-up makes this study statistically insignificant. However, we believe that fact in itself is important. In Southwestern states, we see a large migrant population. This highlights the need to communicate effectively with the patients at the time of surgery, which we speculate we did based on the percentage of patients that knew their diagnosis.

Clapp B., Jarmillo M., Vigil V., Macias L.H., Bouton M., Gallardo C, Kassir A.

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Factors affecting the successful management of intra-abdominal abscesses with antibiotics and the need for percutaneous drainage.

Published in Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, February 2006

PURPOSE: There is no definite consensus on the management of intra-abdominal abscesses in adults. This retrospective study evaluated the use of antibiotic therapy and percutaneous image-guided drainage in adult patients with intra-abdominal abscesses.

METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 114 patients with intra-abdominal abscesses was conducted. Data collected included patient demographics, presenting symptoms, radiographic interpretation, vital signs, antibiotic coverage, laboratory values, and details of the hospital course. Bivariate statistical tests were performed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, chi-squared test, or Fisher’s exact test, where appropriate.

RESULTS: Sixty-seven of 114 patients (59 percent) had intra-abdominal abscesses resulting from appendicitis, diverticulitis in 30 patients (26 percent), postoperative in 13 patients (11 percent), and undetermined in 4 patients (4 percent). Three patients (3 percent; 95 percent confidence interval, 1-8 percent) failed conservative management and underwent urgent operation. Sixty-one (54 percent; 95 percent confidence interval, 44-63 percent) patients improved with intravenous antibiotic therapy alone. Fifty patients (44 percent; 95 percent confidence interval, 35-54 percent) underwent image-guided percutaneous drainage after 48 to 72 hours of antibiotic therapy. Patients who improved on antibiotics alone had average abscess diameter of 4 cm, whereas patients who underwent percutaneous drainage had average diameter of 6.5 cm (P<0.0001). Maximal temperature at time of admission was 100.8 degrees F for antibiotic group and 101.2 degrees F for percutaneous drainage group (P=0.0067).

CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the patients with intra-abdominal abscesses improved with antibiotic therapy alone. Those patients with an abscess diameter>6.5 cm and temperature at admission>101.2 degrees F have higher likelihood of failing conservative therapy with antibiotics alone and requiring percutaneous drainage.

Kumar R.R., Kim J.T., Haukoos J.S., Macias L.H., Dixon M.R., Stamos M.J., Konyalian V.R.

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Diverticulitis: truly minimally invasive management.

Published in The American Surgeon, October 2004

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the treatment of patients with acute diverticulitis in the inpatient setting using minimal intervention. This was a retrospective study of 75 patients admitted over a 3-year period with acute diverticulitis as evidenced by computed tomography (CT) and clinical scenario. Of the patients enrolled, 24 (32%) had abscesses identified on their initial CT scan. An additional four patients had abscesses noted on a subsequent CT scan obtained because of lack of complete improvement with medical management, thus raising the total number of abscesses to 28 (37%). Of the patients with abscesses, 10 (36%) underwent drainage using a CT-guided percutaneous or ultrasound-guided transrectal approach an average of 6 days after admission. Of the 75 patients, five (7%) required operative intervention during the initial hospitalization for failure of medical management, two (40%) of whom had abscesses on presentation. The overall median length of hospitalization was 5 (interquartile range [IQR] 4-9) days, and 18 patients (24%) had recurrences during the study period. Our conservative approach to percutaneous and surgical intervention resulted in relatively low percutaneous drainage, a low operative rate, and a reasonable length of hospitalization and recurrence rate.

Macias L.H., Haukoos J.S., Dixon M.R., Sorial E., Arnell T.D., Stamos M.J., Kumar R.R.

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Autoreactive T cells can be protected from tolerance induction through competition by flanking determinants for access to class II MHC.

Published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, April 2003

It is not clear why the N-terminal autoantigenic determinant of myelin basic protein (MBP), Ac1-9, is dominant in the B1O.PL (H-2(u)) mouse, given its weak I-A(u)-MHC binding affinity. Similarly, how do high-affinity T cells specific for this determinant avoid negative selection? Because the MBP:1-9 sequence is embryonically expressed uniquely in the context of Golli-MBP, determinants were sought within the contiguous N-terminal “Golli” region that could out-compete MBP:1-9 for MHC binding, and thereby prevent negative selection of the public response to Ac1-9, shown here to be comprised of a V beta 8.2J beta 2.7 and a V beta 8.2J beta 2.4 expansion. Specifically, we demonstrate that Ac1-9 itself can be an effective inducer of central tolerance induction; however, in the context of Golli-MBP, Ac1-9 is flanked by determinants which prevent its display to autoreactive T cells. Our data support competitive capture as a means of protecting high-affinity, autoreactive T cells from central tolerance induction.

Maverakis E., Beech J., Stevens D.B., Ametani A., Brossay L., van den Elzen P., Mendoza R., Thai Q., Macias L.H., Ethell D., Campagnoni C.W., Campagnoni A.T., Sette A., Sercarz E.E.

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